Immunity debt vs post covid immune deficiency (PCID). Not an immunology expert, but here are 25 papers/articles that collectively argue for PCID. Immunity debt is a made up term that reflects poor science. 🧵

Nov 3, 2022 · 11:06 PM UTC · Twitter Web App

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1/ *May 1 2020, Title: Reduction and Functional Exhaustion of T Cells in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) ” T cell counts are reduced significantly in COVID-19 patients, and the surviving T cells appear functionally exhausted.” pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3242…
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3/ September 28 2020, Title: SARS-CoV-2 Uses CD4 to Infect T Helper Lymphocytes ”SARS-CoV-2 spike binds to CD4 and mediates entry of SARSCoV-2 in T cells, then assembles viral factories, impairs cell function and may cause cell death. ”medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/…
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4/ Sept 28 2020, Title: Superantigenic character of an insert unique to SARS-CoV-2 spike supported by skewed TCR repertoire in patients with hyperinflammation Superantigens in SARS2 in terms of MIS-C in children, possible role in cytokine storm in adults doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010722…
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5/ *Nov 17 2020, Title: Immune suppression in the early stage of COVID-19 disease ”We uncovered changes in the protein landscape that revealed immunosuppression and impaired tight junctions in COVID-19 patients in the early stage of infection.” nature.com/articles/s41467-0…
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6/ Dec 20 2020, Title: Akt-Fas to Quell Aberrant T Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis in Covid19 ” depict SARS-Cov-2 as a lympho-manipulative pathogen; it distorts T cell function, numbers, and death, and creates a dysfunctional immune response” ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article…
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7/ Mar 11 2021, Title, HLA class I–associated expansion of TRBV11-2 T cells in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. This paper discusses superantigens in terms of MIS-C in children. doi.org/10.1172/JCI146614.
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8/ May 25 2021, Title, Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is driven by zonulin-dependent loss of gut mucosal barrier. Superantigens in terms of MIS-C in children. Focusses on SARSCov2 in the GI tract of children promoting superantigen in MIS-C doi.org/10.1172/JCI149633
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10/ Oct 1 2021, Title: Uncertainty around the Long-Term Implications of COVID-19 ”perspective on some long-term risks of mutational escape, viral persistence, reinfection, immune dysregulation and neurological and multi-system complications (Long COVID).” mdpi.com/2076-0817/10/10/126…
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11/ Nov 16 2021, Title: PD-1 blockade counteracts post–COVID-19 immune abnormalities and stimulates the anti–SARS-CoV-2 immune response ’PD-1 blockade restores T cell function after covid-induced exhaustion’ insight.jci.org/articles/vie…
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13/ Mar 3 2022,Title: Understanding the Effects of Age and T-Cell Differentiation on COVID-19 Severity: Implicating a Fas/FasL-mediated Feed-Forward Controller of T-Cell Differentiation. Mechanism for superantigen deterioration of immune response in COV19 frontiersin.org/articles/10.…
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16/ April 8 2022, Title: SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, but not Omicron, induces thymic atrophy and impaired 2 T cell development ”SARS-CoV-2 associated thymic atrophy from impaired T cell developmental pathway, also explains dysreg T cell function in COV19” biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/…
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18/ May 14 2022, Title: T-cell recovery and evidence of persistent immune activation 12 months after severe COVID-19 ”persistent T-cell activation to 12 m after inf & a subgroup of severe COV19 pats with low CD8+ T-cell counts & dysregulated immune” onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/…
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19/ May 20 2022, Title: SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein suppresses CTL-mediated killing by inhibiting immune synapse assembly ”highlight a new strategy of immune evasion by SARS-CoV-2” biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/…
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21/ Aug 10 2022, Title: Single-cell RNA sequencing highlights a reduced function of natural killer and cytotoxic T cell in recovered COVID-19 pregnant women ”CD8+ 67 68 cytotoxic T cells were compromised in recovered patients vs healthy 69 pregnant women” biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/…
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22/ Aug 10 2022, Title: Distinguishing features of Long COVID identified through immune profiling “provides a basis for future investigations into the immunological underpinnings driving the genesis of Long COVID.” medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/…
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23/ Oct 1 2022, Title: Reduced Cell Surface Levels of C-C Chemokine Receptor 5 and Immunosuppression in Long Coronavirus Disease 2019 Syndrome Findings suggest an unexpected mechanism of abnormal immune downmodulation that is normalized by leronlimab academic.oup.com/cid/article…
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24/ Oct 19 2022, Title: Impact of SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 and its variant polymorphisms on host responses and viral pathogenesis ” ORF6 as a key SARS-CoV-2 innate immune antagonist” biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/…
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And this. May 7 2021, Title: Longitudinal Analysis of COVID-19 Patients Shows Age-Associated T Cell Changes Independent of Ongoing Ill-Health "persistent T cell abnormalities in convalescent COV19 patients more than three months after initial infection" frontiersin.org/articles/10.…
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A lot of people want to call it Covid acquired immune deficiency (CAID) and I agree or Covid acquired immune deficiency syndrome (C-AIDS). I agree.
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Also, Jan 22 2022, Title: T cell apoptosis characterizes severe Covid-19 disease ”compatible with a model in which T-cell apoptosis accounts for T lymphopenia with severe COV19.” nature.com/articles/s41418-0…
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